Wednesday, September 28, 2011
So far I have intended this blog to be my version of responsible, well referenced, (pseudo-) academic research oriented, "just-the-facts, ma'am, just-the-facts" writing. Today I am going to change all that and plunge into an argument with some folks from a decade and a half ago. I will have the advantage in this pursuit in that the other side will be limited to points made in a newspaper article kindly provided to me by a librarian - the cream of humankind. All the rebuttals to my arguments will have to be made by you, my readers. Both of you.
But first, the statue.
This information was gleaned from an article in the Thursday June 8, 1995 "The New Mexican," a Santa Fe daily newspaper. The article was written by H.L. Lovato. The sculpture was created by architect/sculptor Burke Rutherford as part of a deal made with New Mexico Highlands University, which is located in Las Vegas, NM. The arrangement seems to have gone something like this. Students at Highland would help cast their statue from 825 pounds of bronze, purchased by the university for $1,407 (a steal at today’s prices) and would also create a second casting from materials paid for by Rutherford. The students spent over 730 hours creating the Las Vegas casting. Whether or not the second casting was also done by students is not clear.
Here is the controversy, or as the newspaper headline put it, “Sculpture sows discontent.” (A little journalistic joke - the statue is sowing grain or something. Get it?) Jean Hinkie, an area resident, is quoted as saying “It doesn’t really represent the history of this area of New Mexico. It is not complete until a Hispanic and an American Indian woman are placed with their counterpart.” Hmmmm. Seems to me (a male) that it is not really “complete” until it has some men in it, all pioneers were not women, you know, and my faithful friend Gabe is throwing in “And dogs, there should be lots of dogs.” But we digress. Put another way, a work of art can never really tell the whole story of anything. Well, abstract art, maybe, but what is the story there? Whooops. Digressing again.
Even more perturbed than Hinke seemed to be Anselmo Arellano. Arellano is an educator and fairly prolific author of New Mexico Hispanic related books and articles and, I am happy to relate, not the Anselmo Arellano who shows up in “Find-a-Grave. At that time (1995) he was an oral history teacher at Highlands University. He said, (as only an oral historian can), “The female pioneers of Las Vegas were Hispanic. The Anglos did not arrive until after the Santa Fe Trail passed through the area.” He goes on to state that, with this in mind, the sculptured figure was dressed all wrong, that she should be wearing “tápalos or rebozos” and not in a bonnet or calico dress as featured on the statue.
A university spokesperson, Benita Budd, further muddied the waters by explaining, “It was not intended to represent Anglo women, nor was there any effort to represent any ethnic group.” Spoken like a true bureaucrat.
From my perspective we (I’m assuming that all you will agree with me) can pretty quickly dispense with the “no ethic group” sentiment. The woman sculpted was an Anglo, ‘cause, . . . if she looks like an Anglo and dresses like and Anglo, then she pretty much IS an Anglo. More to the point (at least my point) is, does a New Mexico Pioneer have to be Hispanic?
I am one of those who despairs sometimes about the WASPization of American History. Our history, as presented by movies and T.V. and even school textbooks could easily lead one to the conviction that all the Western expansion was done by folks who looked like, say, Ronald Regan. And it was not like that. On the other hand I was looking at a drawing of a US Cavalry soldier recently by the great Western artist Frederick Remington and the guy was black. The drawing was not labeled “Buffalo Soldier”, just “Soldier.” And it worked for me just fine. So it is with the Pioneer Woman.
Recently I found this picture of a pioneer woman and it could have been the same one that Rutherford and the students created.
My bottom line is that the artist willing to spend the time and effort involved with getting a bunch of 20 somethings to make a statue was, in all likelihood, an Anglo. Not wanting to look a gift horse in the mouth, the University accepted the work.
Now whether the statue its self is a great work of art is another issue that I probably will never take up.
Another casting of the statue, perhaps Rutherford’s, is located at Pioneer Park in Worland, Wyoming.
Friday, March 25, 2011
I release the contents of this article under the CC-By-SA and GFDL licenses, initially to be used in wikipedia, but also anywhere else. I am going to leave my references in, formatted for wikipedia and let us see what happens. I would like to thank Ann Barton, librarian, archivist and friend for her help on the article.
Pioneer Woman (Friedlander)
The '''Pioneer Woman''' statue is a significant work of art created by sculptor Leo Friedlander. It is located at the Texas Woman's University (TWU) in Denton, Texas and was commissioned as part of the the Texas Centenary celebrations.
On June 3, 1935 the Board of Regents at TWU passed a resolution stating that it urged "the Centennial Commission of Control to allocate the sum of $30,000 for the erection of a statue to the Pioneer Women of Texas to be erected on the campus as a part of the Centennial celebration. The idea for this statue originated with this institution, and . . . . . . the erection of this statue on the cam,pus will serve the women of the entire State, and will inspire their daughters to continued reference for the heroism and sacrifice of the pioneer women of the past who helped to make the Texas of the present." Board of Regents meeting, June 3, 1935, Book 32, page 44
University President L.H. Hubbard, proposed the a statue to the Centennial Commission who agreed and responded by announcing an open competition for sculptors to design the statue. However "the design of the statue, including the choice of the sculptor, the design, etc, were to be handled under the direction of the State Board of Control, and that the College had nothing whatever to do with the matter." The Board at that time had to be satisfied with recommending a site on campus where the statue would be placed. Board of Regents meeting, November 14, 1935, Book 33, page 18
In June of 1936 the TWU Board of Regents passed a motion requesting that the Texas Centennial Commission "erect a Memorial Chapel to Pioneer Women on the campus instead of the Statue as proposed at the present time." Had either the Regents or the members of the Centennial Commission known what lay ahead they might well have agreed to this request, and as it turned out, the university did eventually get its chapel, the Little Chapel in the Woods, designed by architect O'Neil Ford. First lady Eleanor Roosevelt spoke at its dedication in 1939. By October 1936 plans for the statue were moving forward by "inviting a group of leading American sculptors, about 80 in number, to submit photographs of their of their work and from this group several sculptors are to be chosen who will be required to submit models of the proposed statue to the Centennial Commission of Control and if the first model submitted is not acceptable other models will be submitted until an accepted group is submitted." Board of Regents meeting, October 3, 1936, Book 34, page 4 Foreshadowing if ever there was.
Among the artists who entered the competition was the Texas sculptor Waldine Tauch, who entered seven different competitions conducted by the Commission. She was to win three of them (memorials to Moses Austin, Isaac and Frances Van Zandt and First Shot Fired For Texas Independence monument) but she was not able to garner the Pioneer Woman statue. However she was to play a part in the ensuing drama.
One of the unique things about Tauch's model is it is the only Pioneer Woman statue I've identified where what appears to be the oldest or only child of the Pioneer is a girl.
It is not yet clear how many plaster models were submitted, but a "jury of professionals" unanimously chose the one submitted by William Zorach, a sculptor from New York, which included not just a pioneer woman, or a woman and child as did Tauch's model, but the entire family, mother, father, son and daughter. And they were all nude. Thurman, Nita, ''Original TWU pioneer statue caused a statewide hoopla'', Denton Record-Chronicle, February 15, 2006
Nudity was seen, by some, as being appropriate for Classical, allegorical or symbolical portrayals but was unacceptable for Texas pioneer women. Upon learning of the commission's decision Tauch "wasted no time telephoning and writing letters to many friends throughout the state to report the incident." Hutson, Alice, ‘’From Chalk to Bronze: A Biography of Waldine Tauch,’’ Shoal Creek Publishers, Austin, TX 1978 pp. 96-97
"Anguished protests from Texans swelled into a controversy dwarfing all previous ones (in Zorach's career). One astute observer noted the woman had no wedding ring .... while a chapter of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas declared it, 'the greatest insult that could be offered to these women who believed and practiced the virtue of modesty' ."Baur, John I., ‘’William Zorach’’, Published for the Whitney Museum of American Art by Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1959 p.33
Zorach wrote "The newspapers said that if a Texas pioneer had gone around in such a state of nudity he would have been strung to the nearest tree. ... Gutzon Borglum was down there at the time and I was told that he said my figures looked like a bunch of apes,'' a remark that was widely quoted by opponents of the statue at the time.
Richard Foster Howard, then director of the Dallas Museum of Art defended Zorach Baur, John I., ‘’William Zorach’’, Published for the Whitney Museum of American Art by Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1959 p. 33 and the sculptor went so far as to revise his model so that the figures were clothed ''Here's What All the Row Was About'', Lasso, August 5, 1938 , but the damage had been done.
It did not take long for the public outcry to induce the commission to reverse its decision, to declare that there was no winner of the competition. "The commission was given quietly and without publicity to Leo Friedlander, a sculptor who had not ever entered the competition. " Hutson, Alice, ‘’From Chalk to Bronze: A Biography of Waldine Tauch,’’ Shoal Creek Publishers, Austin, TX 1978 pp. 96-97
The statue was modeled, and then following it's approval by the various committee's in Texas, carved by the Piccirilli Brothers in New York City. Little, Carol Morris, ‘’A Comprehensive Guide to Outdoor Sculpture in Texas’’, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas 1996 p. 195 At some point in the carving process someone, either Friedlander or the Piccirilli carvers became concerned that the statues right hand and her right thumb and fore finger might be too weak to be self-supporting, so a small block of marble was left to add strength. Often such aids are removed in the works final carving, they were not in this case.
On another side of the base the carvers included Leo Friedlander's name.
For the base of the statue the Dean of Women, Jessie H. Humphries, composed the following inscription:
"Marking a trail in a pathless wilderness pressing forward with unswerving courage she met each untried situation with a resourcefulness equal to the need. With a glad heart she brought to her frontier family her homelands cultural heritage. With delicate spiritual sensitiveness she illuminated the dullness of routine and the loneliness of isolation with beauty and with life abundant and with all she lived with casual unawareness of her value to civilization. Such was the pioneer woman. The unsung saint of the nations immortals." Jones, William Moses, ‘’Texas History: Carved in Stone’’, Monument Publishing Co., Houston Texas, 1958 p. 75
Years later Zorach's statue, still without clothes was cast in bronze and obtained by a Colorado bank. I "discovered" it in a courtyard of the bank's branch in Pueblo, Colorado. Later it was moved to Denver and now (2010) resides in front of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center.
Friday, March 4, 2011
It has been a long time since I posted here, but it's time, as the pioneers used to say, to get back in the saddle.
Many, perhaps a majority, of the Pioneer Women in sculpture that I have encountered dated from the 1920s and 1930s. However Leo Lentelli's "Sullivan Gates" are from earlier, 1918. The gates feature two 40 foot tall pylons, each topped by two figures. The two females represent "Agriculture" while the men are "Mining." One of the features of Pioneer women statues are the bonnets that most of them are adorned with, one being found on this pair.
The figures were produced by Lentelli in his studio in New Jersey, in clay. Plaster versions were made from the clay and then a mold was produced from the plasters. This was sent to Denver where the works were cast in cement over a metal armature. The pieces, not almost a century old have not worn well. Patches and repairs can be seen on them. Hopefully they well be preserved before it is too late.
Monday, June 1, 2009
Computers. And technology in general. It's a love hate thing with me some days, particularly now that my computer is comatose, my back-up hard drive is unresponsive and I somehow managed to loose half my pictures of Robert Garrison's magnificent frieze from the Midland Bank Building. But I am getting ahead of myself.
A 1928 booklet, "Art in Denver" has this to say about the Midland Savings Building.
"The building is also distinguished by the "Covered Wagon" frieze, executed by Robert Garrison, Denver sculptor. Incidents in the lives of the gold seekers have been interpreted humorously by Mr. Garrison through the medium of Romanesque sculpture, but in a spirit in keeping with the pioneer and with excellence of technique."
The building, designed by the well thought of (at least by me) Denver architectural firm of Fisher & Fisher, was erected in 1925, but the sculpture only lasted until 1964 when a wave of the modernism typical of the era caused the sculpture to be removed. Perhaps along with the rest of the building, I'm not sure about that. What was not typical was that some of the terra cotta panels were saved and were ultimately put on display at the Denver Botanical Gardens.
Hmmmm. They seem to have been pretty good shots too.
The panels are not something that a casual visitor is likely to discover, the content of the work being decidedly unpolitically correct, but the treatment of the pioneer women is interesting in that they are shown working and fighting right alongside the men. Not the whole frieze was preserved and an unfortunate click of my mouse seems to have lost half of the images that I took, but I think that there are enough remaining to give the viewer a sense of Garrison's remarkable work.
Thursday, March 20, 2008
I release the contents of this article under the CC-By-SA and GFDL licenses, initially to be used in wikipedia, but also anywhere else.
Although it was years before I realized that there was more to the story, the first I heard about the Ponca City Pioneer Woman statue and the competition that helped produce it, was while reading "Between Sittings", sculptor Jo Davidson's autobiography. In it he relates how he was introduced to oil magnate E.W. Marland in Paris in probably 1925. There Marland sketches out an ambitious sculptural program that he has imagined involving numerous statues based on the theme of the settling of the American West and attempts to persuade Davidson to take it on. When Davidson declines Marland replies that he could pay for it, prompting Davidson to come back with "I don't doubt it for a minute, but I don't see myself working for you for the rest of my life."
Marland ultimately convinced Davidson to go to Ponca City, Marland's then home town, and create three statues for him: one of Marland and one of each of Marland's adopted children, Lydie and George. Marland further has his architect, John Duncan Forsyth (another story for another day) build Davidson a studio on the grounds of his estate, using the beams from his first oil derrick as roof beams. This studio is now the Baker Bryant Museum, but I am getting ahead of the story.
While Davidson was producing his three Marland statues E.W. told him of another project that he has in mind, "E.W.'s most cherished dream." Davidson writes, " It was to be a twenty-five foot figure, which he planned to put up on a hill where it could be seen for miles.......... E.W. brought his friends to see what I was doing. He acted as if he was the sculptor, and in conversation would say that he was doing the figure - that I was his hands."
Shortly thereafter Marland informed Davidson that he had invited a number of other sculptors to submit models for the monument. It is interesting (at least to me) that Jo Davidson, arguably America's greatest portrait sculptor, created a Pioneer Woman whose massive sun bonnet all but obscures the features and face of the woman. I can only assume that this was the result of his being Marland's hands.
At that point Marland sent out invitations to many of America's leading sculptors, offering them $2,000 (the exact amount is under debate - this is the figure I believe) to produce a three foot tall model for the statue. He further proposed that the models tour the United States and that the American public vote as to which of the models would be erected in Ponca City. Several sculptors turned Marland down, including Malvina Hoffman and Anna Hyatt Huntington, leaving him with an even dozen artists, all males. The artists who submitted models were, besides Davidson, Mahonri Young, Bryant Baker, John Gregory, Wheeler Williams, Maurice Sterne, A. Stirling Calder, Mario Korbel, Arthur Lee, F, Lynn Jenkins, Hermon MacNeil and James Earle Fraser. The models were to tour America and everyone who visited the sites where they were exhibited was allowed to vote for their favorite.
It is worth a quick look-over the models, for those so inclined, and check to see which pioneer women attributes were used. Bonnets, babies. boys, books, guns and faithful dogs can all be found in varying degrees.
Mahonri Young's biographer Thomas Toone relates that Young produced not only the required three foot tall statuette, but also a plaster version of the entire Pioneer Memorial as he envisioned it, replete with detailed bas reliefs of western scenes around the base of a massive pedestal and platform, on top of which the pioneer woman "holds her child in the embrace of a Renaissance Madonna."
A pair of spirited bison guard the stairs leading up the base. Unfortunately the voting public in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Chicago, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Dallas, Fort Worth, Oklahoma City and finally, Ponca City, was not privy to Young's vision and his work showed poorly in the balloting. Young, who described not winning the competition as the worst disappointment in his career, did manage to get some of his ideas out in later works.
Toone also adds that the winning sculptor, Baker Bryant used, "a professional actress as his model, which produced a glamourous figure, representing Western myth more than reality." A claim that can be (opinion) leveled against a large number of American monuments. But "American Myth vs American Reality" needs to be explored another day. More interesting -to me- than who the model might have been were the comments made about the winning design by Donald De Lue, at that time Baker Bryant's assistant. De Lue's biographer, D. Roger Howlett makes several interesting points about the Pioneer Woman statue.
"it was especially on the "Pioneer Woman" that De Lue manifest his talent. . . .... Baker claimed that the conception and movement of the final monument was developed in an eight-to-ten inch sketch model made by him a few hours after he learned about the competition. De Lue executed the thirty-three inch competition model for the sculpture in 1927, with Baker supervising and completing the face."
James Earle Fraser, according to A.L. Freundlich, based his almost Impressionistic statue on his favorite aunt, Dora, who was herself a pioneer woman. This model is unique among the ones submitted to the competition, and perhaps in the entire world of Pioneer Women Statues, in that the woman, caught breast feeding her child, exposes a bare breast. No stranger to multi-tasking, she still manages to hold on to her rifle while feeding the baby.
When the tour of the models was over, Baker's Pioneer Woman had won first place, out-balloting John Gregory's effort 42,478 to 37,782. "De Lue set to work in 1928 and 1929, modeling it in Baker's Brooklyn studio, working with Jean La Seure, the enlarger. De Lue later remembered: "One day Bryant decided he would work on it, and did some work. I said, 'Look, Bryant, if I were you I'd get the hell out of here, because you're not helping at all,' He said, 'Thank you very much.' and he went." (Howlett)
The Ponca City Pioneer Woman statue was dedicated on April 22, 1930, in a ceremony that included a live radio message and some marginally off color commentary by the Oklahoma humorist, Will Rogers.
Many years after the competition Wheeler Williams' model was re-discovered, enlarged, cast, and now sits in front of the public library in Liberty, Kansas.
An interesting aside is that although Jo Davidson fared poorly in the model balloting he was later commissioned to create a monumental statue of Will Rogers, versions of which can be found in the Will Rogers Museum in nearby (to Ponca City, anyway) Clairmore, OK and in the Statuary Hall collection in the Capitol Building in Washington D.C., as one of the two Oklahoma statues that reside there.
I have often asked myself, "Why did EW go through all the trouble and expense to pay for and run the competition and then tack on the considerable added expense of the statue its self?" One quick answer is that he was an oil boom man, and could afford it. Years later, after J.P. Morgan and his banking cohorts ended up with all EW's wealth he might have wondered if it was money well spent, but I suspect that he was happy to leave the statue behind as his legacy, figuring that had he not spent those sums, the New York bankers would have gotten that too. But then late one night, when "historical research by divine inspiration" often takes place it occurred to me that Marland, who was later to become the governor of Oklahoma, might have been planning his political career even has he planned his monument. Only half a decade (1920) before the statue's life was set into motion the XIX Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, giving women in America the vote. What better way to begin to win that vote, both locally and nationally could there be than to erect a monument to the Pioneer Women?
An excellent account of the Pioneer Woman statue competition and the fate of the 12 models that toured the country, including some fine photographs and a slightly different take on the whole event, can be found here.
Besides a lot of interesting information and images, I also picked up from Hugh a comfortable copyright tag. Thanks H.
All content on this web site is licensed under the Creative Commons under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0//Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license
and attribution must be provided to Einar Einarsson Kvaran. Some content in this article may be presented without the permission of the copyright owner for the non-profit purposes of criticism, comment, education, scholarship, and research under the "Fair Use" provisions of U.S. Government copyright laws.
Monday, February 25, 2008
(Text and photos by Cindy Prescott) I stumbled into studying Pioneer statues as I was finishing a dissertation that compared the gender and family roles the first two generations of white settlers in western Oregon's Willamette Valley (1845-1900). I got interested in Oregon pioneer organizations and pioneer monuments as reflections of idealized images of early settlers. I was particularly interested in how women's actual roles on the early frontier got collapsed into an idealized "Pioneer Mother" type. I soon discovered that the statues in the Willamette Valley looked a lot like other "pioneer mother" statues erected across the country at the same time (ca. 1927-1940) -- most famously the NSDAR "Madonna of the Trail" series (which I'd first encountered in Springfield, OH, on a historic preservation project years before).
The Pioneer Mother monuments in Oregon seemed to fit 2 basic types. In the first, young mothers tried to protect their children from the hazards of overland trail/frontier life, as in Avard Fairbanks' "Old Oregon Trail" (note the wagon forming a Madonna-like halo as the mother protects her son), and Leo Friedlander's "The Covered Wagon". In Friedlander's, the son is imitating his father, trying to "thrust our frontiers to the setting sun"; the mother tries to hold him back from the dangers of trail life. These women in some ways echo the NDSAR's "Madonna of the Trail" and Ponca City, OK, "Pioneer Mother," but they are less bold, and certainly don't carry rifles.
The second type I discovered were seated grandmothers in more domestic poses. These focused on a later time period, after the initial frontier era, and emphasized women's proper place within the domestic sphere.
You can read more of my analysis of these images in chapter 6 of my book, Gender and Generation on the Far Western Frontier (Univ. of Arizona Press, 2007).
I'm now working on a national survey of existing pioneer woman monuments nationwide. I'm particularly intrigued by a shift toward more maternal and domestic imagery in later statues, such as the one on the North Dakota Statehouse lawn, in which the mother is contained within the family circle, and looks over her shoulder to her husband for guidance and protection, rather than looking boldly forward.
Tuesday, February 5, 2008
When building a house it is essential that there be a solid, firm foundation if the house its self is going to survive long.
The same is pretty much true with Pioneer Women, at least with their statues.
They all seems to fit firmly into and almost grow out of a fine pair of boots. Laces seem to far outnumber the slip-it-on type, perhaps because there is an element of style in them.
We'll look at roofs later.